Genesis 14:5 purposefully grouped the Rephaim, Zuzim, and Emim nations together in the war of giants as giant nation empires east of the Jordan River. The Mesopotamian alliance attacked Rephaim nations protecting Canaanites, en route to reimposing the Mesopotamian tribute on the upstart vassal Canaanite city-states.
The Rephaim, Zuzim, and Emim nations were the Eastern alliance of the early postdiluvian period, and part of the “Rephaims” listed in Genesis 15:20. The Eastern alliance supported and protected the Canaanite hybrid nations who supplied willing female surrogates to subsidize increasingly infertile female giants. The Horim, Amaleqim, Avvim, and Anakim of the Southern alliance offered protection for Canaanite hybrids from the Egyptian empire.
The Mesopotamian alliance attacked the Rephaim in the Mount Hermon region of the north first, then marched south to Ammon to wage war on the Zuzim. The campaign continued in a southerly direction to wage war on the Emim of Moab, then southwest to war with the Horim of Seir, then returned or turned back to battle the Amaleqim at Kadesh, likely in the south but perhaps in the east. The Mesopotamians then marched to attack the Amorites at Hazezontamar in the desert of Judah. The Mesopotamian alliance finally marched to the south Dead Sea region to reinstate their tribute upon the Canaanite pentapolis, which begat the great war.
The Zuzim giants surface only once in Scripture, in the war of giants, and only with its im suffix applied to Nephilim, Rephaim, Gibborim, and angels like seraphim and cherubim. Oddly, Zuzim is a plural male noun translated into English in a double plural format, as “Zuzims” in Genesis 14, as were the “Rephaims” and “Emims,” suggesting there were multiple tribes of these giants. Just as strange, Strong’s Dictionary defined Zuzim/Zuwziym as Zuzites even though KJV translators inked them as Zuzims. Contrarywise, Strong’s further noted that the Zuzim were an Aboriginal tribe of Palestine, even though Scripture states they were from the land of Ham (Egypt), as does Unger’s.